Letters

Letter from Craig Solomonson

Craig was a computer collector of types who was considering writing a book about the Apple 1. That's why he wrote to Edmond to find out more on the Apple 1 and to the Woz.


Joe,

Nice to hear from you. Sounds like you have been
doing some house cleaning! Glad to hear that
you found the case, box, and keyboard for the
Apple 1. I would be interested in any of those
items. Let me know what you need for those items.
I wouldn't need the cassette interface, but I'll pass
the info on if anyone inquires about one.

I don't have any of the cards you are looking for,
but I do have a spare Disk ][ interface card (handy
spare or to expand to a 4 drive system) and also a set of
chips for the disk drive. I also have a copy of
Apple Logo with manuals in the box that has never been
opened. It's a nice starter language for kids. I think
it retails for about $150. If any of these items are
of interest, let me know. I also have probably
10-15 new diskettes full of assorted educational programs.

I wrote to Robert Edmonds. His wife wrote back and
said he had died a few years ago and she threw
away all his old papers, computer stuff, etc. Also got
a letter from Steve Wozniak about the Apple 1. He said
they built 200 of them and only a couple actually
got traded in on Apple ]['s. Incidently, Apple did not
serial number the boards... the Byte Shop put those
on the ones they bought from the Steves (about 100
boards).

I haven't tried the Apple 1 out yet. Still
looking for the other transformer and the
right keyboard. Couple guys here at work have
said they would hook it up. Maybe will get
that done soon if we work someting out on
the keyboard.

Well, that's about all for right now. Thanks
for writing and hope all is going well.

Sincerely,
Craig Solomonson
1760 2nd Avenue N.W.
Cambridge, MN 55008

P.S. How's the Apple II+ working? Fine, I hope.
I really like my new IIe except
the new Unidrives worry me. They
sound cheap!

Letter from Stan Veit

This letter is from Stan Veit, former owner of The Computer Mart of New York, the third person Steve Jobs sold an Apple 1 to, and Apple's third dealer. It was sent to Joe Torzewski of the Apple One Owners Club.


STANLEY S. VEIT19 WEST 34 ST.NEW YORK,N.Y.10001

MAY 23,1981
APPLE ONE LIBRARYJOE TORZEWSKI51625 CHESTNUT ROADGRANGER, IN 46530

Dear Joe:

Strange you should mention it, but I will certainly talk about the Apple One. I knew that someone out there might be working with them, but I didn't know there was such a library. I will be happy to use my column to bring it to everyone's attention.

In April of 1976, I received a phone call at The Computer Mart of New York which I ran. It was from a young man in who had just developed a single-board computer using the 6502. He wanted me to become his dealer on the east coast and because he was so enthusiastic about his machine, I bought it. In a short time UPS dropped off a package containing the Apple 1. It didn't work. So I got on the phone and called Los Gatos and talked to Steve (for both the young men involved were called Steve). They sent me another one and a keyboard, plus the little cassette board they had just built. This time it worked like a charm. There was a monitor, a Game of Life program and that's it. No BASIC yet. Still I enjoyed my Apple One and I built it into an attache case. About that time the New York Chapter of the ACM had a meeting at which they invited several microcomputer vendors to show their wares to the collected group of big-computer people. My wife and I attended the meeting with my little case and a 9-inch monitor. The Altair people were there with a whole rack of equipment, the Computer Corner of Westchester showed an IMSAI with a terminal and a ASR-33 Teletype. When they saw me with no big load of equipment they were disappointed, but when I set up the Apple One and ran LIFE, I was the hit of the evening. Here was a true personal computer.

That summer was the first Atlantic City Personal Computer Festival the first big computer show. I had two booths. Before it opened I went to Emeryville Ca. to a meeting at Processor Technology. While there I met the two Steves, Jobs,and Wozniack ,they offered me a piece of the Apple Computer Co for $10,000. I had all my money invested in the Computer Mart of New York so I had to refuse. That 10K would have returned millions! Anyway, I invited them to join me in my booth at the show for free. They said they would be glad to come if they could rase the fare to Atlantic City. Well they borrowed the money and came. They had promised me to bring BASIC with them and it was not finished, but they had the prototype of Apple II and they wanted to dump Apple One right then and there. I convinced them that they would have zero creditability if they didn't finish BASIC and support the

model 1 while they developed the model 2.

The upshot of all this was they finished BASIC in the hotel during the show, they were a big hit and Apple was on its way. As for me, I sold all my Apple One's (including my own), didn't get Apple II for over a year, by which time all was forgotten. What had I done for them lately!

Of course Steve Jobs still says "hello" to me when we meet, as we did two weeks ago at the NCC, but the Apple Computer wouldn't give me the right time.

Hang on to your Apple One, it's history and my be worth something some day, besides being a great board. Thanks for writing to me.

Stan Veit

Letters from Larry Nelson

Dec. 19, 1977

Larry F. Nelson
2620 South Washington Street
Marion, Indiana 46952
December 19, 1977

Joe Torzewski
Apple I Owners Club
51625 Chestnut Road
Granger, IN 46530

Dear Joe:

Thanks for the very interesting telephone conversation Sunday.
Since I purchased my Apple I in June of this year, I have
had very little contact with other computer hobbyists. The
nearest Computer Club is 60 miles from here, and to the best
of my knowledge there are no other hobbyists in this area.
So any contact I can make with other computer nuts will be
a big improvement.

My interests are mainly in programming and hardware at this time.
I am convinced that the 6502 CPU is a powerful processor that
I only partially appreciate, since I am ignorant of its full
capabilities. I have spent most of the last six months trying
basic programs and dabbling in some machine-language instruc-
tions, and am willing to share what information I have gained
with everyone in order to improve my own system.

I am enclosing a listing of a Tic-tac-toe game that I developed
to run in the Apple I. Also, I am sending you an article for
a newsletter that I wrote last night. Use these as you wish,
and if you would rather have tapes than listings, let me know.
I have several games I have developed to run in my Apple I that
I'll let you have.

If you have any programs, tapes, listings or information on
the Apple I, I want it! Let me know how much money, what you
have, what you need, etc., and I will send a money order back.

Be sure to let me know if I can help get this Owners Club off
the ground. I'll be glad to type articles (although my typing
leaves much to be desired), make mailings, or do the printing
(I have a spirit duplicator) if needed.

Seasons greetings to you and your family. I'll look forward to
hearing from you.

Yours truly,

Larry F. Nelson

Mar. 17, 1980

"Note some of the commands and such are for Apple II basic but they were in Apple 1's basic. You could type in the command and the basic would not give you an error, it would just sit there. So we both thought that Apple, the Steves, were thinking about the Apple 2 when they were trying to do the Basic for the Apple 1."


Larry Nelson
514 S. Adams
Marion, In 46952
March 17, 1980
Dear Joe,
Sorry I haven't written lately. Last
week I went to Florida on a short vacation.
Before that I was working on BASIC.
I've broken a lot of the code and am working
on cleaning out a lot of trash. It looks like
they threw this thing together to get a computer
on the market fast. Probably other used bits
and pieces from other listings, since there
are several places with bad listings. Also found
USR, RNDX, and OFF statements on commands in
there. USR and RNDX don't work, but OFF
turns off the auto-line #. (Try it by typing Auto10(r).
then type "escape", then OFF(r)).
We have COLOR=, PLOT, HLIN, too. It adds \
up to 120 bytes in there + several commands that
we can't use.
Now, if I can decipher how the ASCII is
coded for each command, I'll have it made! Then
I'll be able to pull out those unused commands and
replace them with something useful.

I haven't even looked at those memories
since I gave up. Maybe I'll get back to them
one of these days.

That Space War Program sounds great! I
hope you're not having too many bugs to finish
it.
Any time you want to see how much memory
you have left, exit BASIC, and type:
CA,CD (r)
computer echos CA: 3A 21 00 05
means program is stored from 213AH to top of memory
and variables are stored from 0500H to bottom of memory.
The space still empty is between 0500H to 213AH
or 1D3AH bytes = 748210 !! (Remember, variables
are called when the program runs, so allow 6
bytes for each variable in the program, where typing in the
program.)
Guess that's all for now. Write when
you can.
Larry

Jan. 3, 1981

"In this letter you will see that we talked about putting the Apple 1 in EPROM and the spaces in basic and if we could and how to use them."


Larry Nelson
514 S. Adams
Marion, In 46952
Jan 3, 1981
Dear Joe,
They say "Three is a charm" and this is the
third time I've started a letter to you, so maybe
I'll get to finish it this time.
Still no keyboard. Met a fellow who
says he has a spare he'll let me have, but
he hasn't come through yet.
The INKEY function could be put in
code. The problem is that I've used some of
BASIC empty spots, and now I'm not sure
which places I've filled (HIMEM=and LOMEM=
changes, and that routine to randomize).
I goofed and didn't save a hard copy of
the changes. (I make up for my stupidity with
ineptness!)
In the original Apple BASIC, there are
several areas we could put "fixes":
E61C thru E622 = 710 Bytes
E98D " E997 = 1110 Bytes
EE3E " EE67 = 3710 Bytes (PLOT, COLOR=, OFF commands)
EEA6 thru EECA = 3710 Bytes (HLIN, COLOR, Value of HIMEM and
LOMEM
(don't work)
plus another 34 bytes strung over the 4K program in
banks of 6 or less.

Apple BASIC does not modify itself, so
it is ROMable. Programs would rut at the same
speed, since the APPLE cycle time is about 980 NS,
since it uses a clock of 1.023 MHz. Dynamic
roms need a refresh cycyle crowded into the clock
once ina while, which probably explains why
they have to be faster on access.
Until I get the Apple up, I can't do
much on Adventure game, except work out
arrays, flow charts, etc. Called A-BOMB.
A berserk ambassador has armed an atomic
bomb in his embassy. Your assignment, if you
accept it, is to search the building, find and
disarm the bomb before it blows the city
(and you) off the map. It'll be written in BASIC,
with a lot of the data accessed via PEEK and
POKE. Conserves memory and keeps hackers from
listing the traps, lagards, and solutions. I'll have
60 to 70 verbs and nouns (should be a sizeable
vocabulary). Random outcome of the game will
prevent you from winning one time and "Breaking
the code". I've played some of these games that have
only one solution. Once you win, you can always
win, and there's no thrill in playing it again.
I have no idea how much memory I'll need,
but I guess I'll find that out when I start writing
it.
Better get this in the mail, now.

Larry

Feb. 7, 1981

"This letter talks about the Inkey command and aabout cursor control for the Apple 1 computer. Also the statement is made that they was preparing for the Apple II back in 1976 the way the software, Basic looked."


Feb 7, 1981
Dear Joe,
Boy, I'll be glad when winter is over. It
seems like it lasts forever, only more.
MURPHY'S LAW strikes again!! That
program I sent you has an error at 0311 -
change F8 to F5. You couldn't trace it
because TRACE hangs up waiting for the PIA
to clear, and loops endlessly, but it (the program) should
work correctly. (unless more gremlins got into
it.)
INKEY IS SURE O.K.! (Hint, change
20H (JSR) to 4CH(JMP) at E86F, EE43, EE57
and EE5C. JMP is faster than JSR and doesn't
push the return address on the stack. I don't
know if it would happen, but the stack could
overflow on a large BASIC program and wipe
out the game.)
You asked about curosr control - - -
(Print AT, etc.) JOBS, WOZNIAK and COMPANY
made the Apple I with NO way to control
the cursor. That's the biggest difference between
Apple I and Apple II. They used dynamic
shift registers (1K storage - 2504's) to hold
the characters for display, giving us a first-in-
first-out stock in hardware. No way to
change a character, blank or move the cursor,
clear the screen, or add clusters except at

the end of the list. Some BASIC commands of
ours change the vertical cursor pointer, etc.
but since the video isn't in RAM, nothing
happens. (They were preparing for Apple II
back in '76). Our advantage, of course, is
another Kilobyte of RAM free for our use,
plus less overhead in our MONITOR.

Still no keyboard. I can't see paying
80 to 200 bucks at this time for a keyboard
when 16K of RAM is $29. Well, maybe something
will turn up, - I'll let you know when I'm up
and running again.

Oops! I've missed the mailman. -
I'd better get this letter in an envelope or
you'll never get it. - Write when you can.

CV
Larry

Apr. 8, 1981

Larry Nelson
514 S. Adams
Marion, In 46952
April 8, 1981
Dear Joe,
Boy, It's good to have the apple up and
running! - Now if I can only get away from
that "Attack on the Death Star" program, I
might get something serious started. - It's a
great game!! Congratulations.
(You asked about standardizing INKEY at $0A -
since we are writing the standards, let's do it -
no problems that I can see.)
I have checked your monitor listing and
can only find 1 error - Change AF8D from
$0E to $AE (same as AE4F from $0D to $AD,
which you had correctly marked.)

The NEW BASIC is almost ready!
I've re-written the whole thing, added INKEY,
(10 A=INKEY : If A=176 THEN...)(Automatically clears $0A)
MEM, (Type MEM (CR), computer prints
free memory left in program), the rnadom generator
straightened up HIMEM, LOMEM, HIMEM=,
LOMEM-, end removed that irritating "***ENDERR"
message that isn't needed.
Two empty spaces are left, 4Z10 bytes and
5010 bytes. - Got any idea for a couple of

short commands? (not enough space for RENUMBER or
VARLIST, but maybe ASC() or CHR$().)
examples: 100 IF ASC(A$) = "175" THEN GOSUB...
120 PRINT CHR$(162);

The new basic works with all our present
programs. All I've done is cleaned out the trash,
made some fixes, etc, and rearranged to save
time and space on execution. The ADE program
editor was perfect for the job --
Which reminds me, "backspace" in the EDITOR
is defined as $08 at $EE15. -- change it to
whatever your characer is with Bit8 set to 0. -
To change memory limits, see the instruction
changes I sent you.

My ADVENTIURE-type game is still in the
planning stage. - Hope to get some of it into the
APPLE soon. I'll try to keep you informed
on what's happening here.

CV
Larry

Letters from Professor Schawlow

Jan. 3, 1977

The date on this letter is incorrect. It was actually written in 1978, not 1977.


Stanford University
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

Jan. 3, 1977
Mr. J. Torzewski
51625 Chestnut Road
Granger, IN 46530

Dear Mr. Torzewski:

I am glad to see, from the December issue of Interface Age, that you
are collecting Apple I programs. After more than a year of struggling with
the Apple I, I have pretty much put it aside since I have been able to get
the use of computers with better hardware and software support (Cromemco Z1
and now an Apple II). But I did write some programs for it, which are
enclosed with this letter.

The enclosed cassette has two tracks of programs: A, starting at 0
on my tape counter, and B which starts at 10. A contains
A1 (280-7FF) Program to display large characters
A2 (800-FFF) Extended monitor (apparently a design study for the
Apple II)
B contains
B1 (700-71C) Porgram to display ASCII HEX equivalents o f any
keyboard character
B2 (750-776) Program to display ASCII HEX equivalents of all
printing characters
B3 (7C0-7FF) Improved search subroutine for disassembler (like the
one I published in the October issue of Interface Age, except that it prints
only two lines of disassembled code)
B4 (700-9FF) Disassembler (as published in Dr. Dobb's Journal and
Interface Age)
B5 (A00-BFF) Primitive, line oriented text editor

I had expanded the Apple I memory to 20K and have a 16K Star Trek
and a floating point calculator program. However, I have taken out the 16K
chips and put them in the Apple II and so can no longer run these. If you
want, I can make copie on the Apple II, but I cannot test them.

It will be interesting to hear what programs you find. I would also
be interested in any information on how to interface the Apple I. I do have
an SWTP printer connected to it, but that is all.

Yous sincerely,

Arthur L. Schawlow
Professor

Jan. 23, 1977

Standford University
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

Jan. 23, 1977
Mr. J. Torzewski
51625 Chestnut Road
Granger, IN 46530

Dear Mr. Torzewski:

I can give only partial answers to your questions, and it has taken me
some time to assemble this much information. We did not make the conversion to
16K memory chips. That was done by Steve Jobs of Apple Computer, and he did not
give us any documentation. Therefore, I have taken photos of the board to show
the connections, and these are enclosed.

In the breadboard area, there are five sockets. One of them (slides 13
and 15: at the left if breadboard area is at the top) is a socket for the flat
cable connecting to the SWTP printer. The next small socket and the large one
were for a project that was never completed, and so have no function. The two
on the right, labelled 74153 and 74139, are for integrated circuits with those
part numbers and are used in the 16K chips conversion. The connections to these
sockets are the light green wires shown in slides 17 and 19. Note that two
traces on the underside of the board have been cut for the 16K conversion. They
have been bridged by the red wires shown in the photograph. Also, the X-0
solder bridge in the chip select area must be cut. (The red wires in that area
were for another unfinished project and serve no useful function). Pin 14 of
integrated circuit 74S257 at location B-8 was bent so that it did not go into
the socket. If you have questions about the photograph and can't see where a
particular wire goes, we can look again at our board, but this is about all we
know.

Steve Jobs published an article describing how to interface to an STWP
printer, in the October 1976 issue of Interface Age. A copy of that article is
enclosed. We followed it, and the corresponding connections are the yellowish
green and red-white wires shown in slide 17. There is a switch to permit the
computer to output characters to the TV display when the printer is not in use.
It is indicated in Jobs' article and is mounted on the comptuer hoiusing so that
it is not visible in these photos.

I am enclosing a handwritten sheet listing some of the commands of the
extended monitor, a copy of the commands of the Apple II monitor, and a
disassembler listing of the extended monitor. Frankly, I believe that the
extended monitor was juast a design study for the Apple II, and it is not much use
for the Apple I especially if you have only 8K memory.

I hope to hear something of what you have been learning before too long.
Would it be worthwhile for you to start a newsletter and sell subscriptions?

Yous sincerely,

Arthur L. Schawlow
Professor

Sep. 17, 1978

Stanford University. Stanford. California 94303

ARTHEUR L. SCHAWLOW
J.G. Jackson - C.J. Wood
Professor of Phyiscs
(415) 407-4358

September 14, 1978

Mr. J. Torzewski
51625 Chestnut Road
Granger, IN 46530

Dear Mr. Torzewski:

Since you want it, and since nobody else has the
information, we will work out instructions for expanding
the memory of the Apple I. To start, I have ordered
duplicates of the slides, and should get them in a week
or so. We will then set out to expand the memroy again
and will note what we do as we do it. If all goes well,
we will have something to send you in a couple of weeks.

Our Apple I belongs to the University and it is
impractical to sell it now. There would be a lot of red
tape, and I would have no say as to who they sell it to.
So it seems best to keep it and make some limited use
of it.

Yous sincerely,

Arthur L. Schawlow

ALS:jf

Oct. 30, 1978

ARTHEUR L. SCHAWLOW
J.G. Jackson - C.J. Wood
Professor of Phyiscs
(415) 407-4358

October 30, 1978

Mr. J. Torzewski
51625 Chestnut Road
Granger, IN 46530

Dear Mr. Torzewski:

I am enclosing the instructions for converting an Apple I
to 20K memory. I am still not convinced that it is worth the
trouble, but it does work. We reconverted ours to check the
instructions.

I really don't know whether the speed of the memory chips
is critical. I don't know anything about the chips we have
used, and they may have been fast ones made surplus for some
other reason, but we did not pay a premium for speed. Still,
bad chips can be very troublesome, and so you should try to
get good ones if you can.

Do you have any information about input and output port
circuits for the Apple I? Even with the primitive BASIC, it
could make a useful controller if it could be interfaced with
transducers or relays.

I will be interested to hear how you make out if you do
try the memory conversion.

Yous sincerely,

Arthur L. Schawlow

Jul. 19, 1980

ARTHEUR L. SCHAWLOW
J.G. Jackson - C.J. Wood
Professor of Phyiscs
(415) 407-4358

July 10, 1980

Mr. J. Torzewski
51625 Chestnut Road
Granger, IN 46530

Dear Mr. Torzewski:

After I received your letter of January 26, 1979, I made a
number of attempts to copy the Apple I version of Star Trek for you,
but did not succeed. The recorder may have been defective, or it may
have been the tape.

Subsequently, some months ago, I ran across the enclosed tape in
the clearance sale pile at a local computer store. It is a copy of
Star Trek for the Apple I. But before I could get around to trying
it out, the students using our Apple I burned out something vital in
it, and so that computer no longer works. Apple won't repair it, and
I haven't found anyone else to do it yet. So, this tape is untested
and may be damaged, blank or otherwise useless. Whatever it is, you
can keep it. If you are still using the Apple I, you can try the
tape or throw it away as you wish.

Yous sincerely,

Arthur L. Schawlow

ALS:fj
Enclosure
(Dictated by Professor Schawlow;
signed in his absence by - fj.)

Letters from Richard Drennan

Feb. 2, 1978

Richard Drennan
4590 Oberlin Avenue
Leraine, Ohio
February 2, 1978

Dear Joe,
Before I go any further, I'd like to appoligize for my typing.
I'm a good programer, but a bad typist and a worse speller. Also,
my rickety old typewritter has seen better days.

I'd have written sooner, but a. combinitation of bad weather
and lots of things going on at work has kept me busy.

First a bit of information I've discovered. When you load
BASIC from a cassette, LOMEM is initalized to 2048. On my APPLE I
this leaves a large block of memory unused. I found that after
loading BASIC I can set LOMEM equal to 768 and BASIC functions
fine. Doing this almost doubles available memory into which you
can store a BASIC program. Some of my programs will only go into
my memory if I use this technique.

I have over 50 programs (all games) for my APPLE I. I'm sending
you a list of the games I have. I would be happy to send you a
source list of all my programs, but the hard part is typing up
instructions on how to play the games, which is necessary because
all my programs are poorly documented. (REM statements use up
memory).

I have got my printer partialy running, but it has the bad habit
of printing the first character of the next line an the previous
line. This doesn't bother source listings so long As the statement
numbers are less than 10000 because the first character of every
line is then blank. It does, however, make program. runs hard to
read.

I am sending you two programs ,which I particularly like. I
tried to do a decent job of explaning them in a sheet attached to
each source list. I hope you like them.

I have not yet gotten my graphics to run mostly because I have
not yet gotten my printer to run to my satisfaction, and have been
spending most of my time on the printer. When I get them to run
I'll send you details.

That is about it. I hope what I'm sending you will help you.

Sincerely,

Richard Drennan

Feb. 2, 1978

Richard Drennan
4590 Oberlin Avenue
Leraine, Ohio
February 2, 1978

Dear Joe,
Before I go any further, I'd like to appoligize for my typing.
I'm a good programer, but a bad typist and a worse speller. Also,
my rickety old typewritter has seen better days.

I'd have written sooner, but a. combinitation of bad weather
and lots of things going on at work has kept me busy.

First a bit of information I've discovered. When you load
BASIC from a cassette, LOMEM is initalized to 2048. On my APPLE I
this leaves a large block of memory unused. I found that after
loading BASIC I can set LOMEM equal to 768 and BASIC functions
fine. Doing this almost doubles available memory into which you
can store a BASIC program. Some of my programs will only go into
my memory if I use this technique.

I have over 50 programs (all games) for my APPLE I. I'm sending
you a list of the games I have. I would be happy to send you a
source list of all my programs, but the hard part is typing up
instructions on how to play the games, which is necessary because
all my programs are poorly documented. (REM statements use up
memory).

I have got my printer partialy running, but it has the bad habit
of printing the first character of the next line an the previous
line. This doesn't bother source listings so long As the statement
numbers are less than 10000 because the first character of every
line is then blank. It does, however, make program. runs hard to
read.

I am sending you two programs ,which I particularly like. I
tried to do a decent job of explaning them in a sheet attached to
each source list. I hope you like them.

I have not yet gotten my graphics to run mostly because I have
not yet gotten my printer to run to my satisfaction, and have been
spending most of my time on the printer. When I get them to run
I'll send you details.

That is about it. I hope what I'm sending you will help you.

Sincerely,

Richard Drennan

May 5, 1979

Richard Drennan
4590 Oberlin Avenue
Lorain, Ohio
May 5, 1979

Dear Joe,

Well once again I have to apologize for not writing sooner. I'll try to shape up.

I noticed that your letters are post marked South Band. How far is Granger from South
Band, and in what direction? What post mark is on my letters? Lorain is, by the way,
about 25 miles west of Cleveland on beautiful (??) Lake Erie. Lorain is supposed to be the
10th largest city in Ohio, but I doubt that any non-residents have ever heard of it.

Well, on to more prosaic things. Did you ever get your 2519 chip? If so, where?
I can't seem to find anyone who sells them. I sure hope my 2519 remains O.K.

My 16K runs fine. If you have some old programs that you would like to convert for 16K
try this:
1) Load your program at 4A.0DFFR3800.3FFFR
2) while still in the monitor enter the following:
a) 4A:00 10 FF 3F (return)
b) CD (return)
This should display the contents of address 00CD. For example,the comptuer
might respond with 00CD:09
c) Next, you must add 30 to the contents of CD. If 09 was in CD as in the
above example, then 30 + 09 = 39.
d) 3D:@@ where '@@' is the number found in c). It would be 39 in the above
example so you would enter 3D:39 (return)
e) E2B3R (return)
3) You should now be in BASIC. Try listing the program. If ic lists O.K., then
RUN the program. THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT, because running the program will not
only tell you if the program is going to function, but it sets up pointers
that were not changed by the above procedure. DO NOT store the program
or GOTO the program until you have run it at least once.
4) Press reset
5) To store the program type 4A.00FFW1000.3FFFW This will take quite a while to
complete since you are now storing 12K instead of 2K, and will also require
almost 6 time as much tape
6) To read the program back, type 4A.00FFR1000.3FFFR
The advantage to moving your programs in this way is that you don't have to re-enter them
if you want to expand them from the old 2K, and you can load the Extended Monitor and
run BASIC programs without clabbering the Extended Monitor. To use the same addresses for
a new program that you are entering, try the following:
1) Enter BASIC
2) Type in the following:
a) HIMEM=16384 (return)
b) LOMEM=4096 (return)
any program that was in memory will be lost, and any new program entered will be stored in
the same addresses as the instructions above.

I know a little about machine language, but doubt that I would soon be able to find the
time to try to convert the FOCAL program for the APPLE I. I wouldn't mind, however,
having FOCAL on my APPLE II. If you send me details on how I might get it, I'll buy it
and get running on my APPLE I, then if I find the time, I'll try to get it running on the
APPLE I.

I didn't send a cassette because the extended monitor seems to allow you pass
programs between the APPLE I and the APPLE II Should have told you earlier, but I guess
I got to lazy to write.

Still don't know whats wrong with my cassette interface, but think the problem is probally
in the read circuitry, because programs written by the APPLE I Extended Monitor will read
fine on the APPLE II, but the same program will not read on the APPLE I. The strange thing
is that all my old tapes (before I started having troubles) will read o.k. I'm getting
frustrated enough to replace all the parts on the whole interface (excepth the ROM's) to
see if that will help.

I have printed out all my APPLE I programs. I will send you a copy of them if you want.
I don't have an explanation for them, however, an you would have to figure out how to play them
yourself.

That's it, I guess. The weather out here is lousy also, but you get use to that when you live
on the shores of beautiful (ugh) Lake Erie.

Sincerely,

Rich Drennan

Drennan's software list

Richard Drennan's game programs in BASIC

1 Stock Market
2 Master Mind
3 Black Jack
4 Moon Lander
5 The Coffee Game
6 Craps
7 Poker Dice
8 Hurkle
9 Trap
10 Reverse
11 Amaze
12 Klingon Attack
13 Survive
14 Tower of Honoi
15 Clue
16 Wheel of Fortune
17 Horse Race
18 Hamurabi
19 Balance of Terror
20 Golf
21 Russian Roulete
22 Life (#1 & #2)
23 Probe
24 Square Mile
25 Slot Machine
26 Roulette
27 Kamikaze
28 Bowling
29 Sailboat Races
30 Racks
31 Pyramids
32 Chuck-a-Luck
33 Fare
34 Klingon Capture
35 Horta
36 Rotate
37 Across the field
38 Code name: sector
39 Othello
40 Press ups
41 Computer Rage
42 Shogun
43 Battleship
44 Swahili
45 Trouble
46 Dungeon Dice
47 Payday
48 Gambler
49 Yahtzee
50 Business Strategy
51 Star Trek (small version from APPLE)

Postcard from Woz

The best way to get an answer from Apple in the early days (and sometimes still) was to include a self-addressed post card with your letter. Joe used this method in 1977 when he inquired about floating point BASIC for the Apple 1. He recieved the following reply, from Steve Wozniak himself:

Apple I - Woz postcard 1

Apple I - Woz postcard 2

SCCS INTERFACE

The hobbyists magazines of the 1970's had spots where they would tell about newsletters, clubs, etc. for free. This one was for the Apple 1 Library. It was published in 1977.


Dear Joe,

I got your note and will run it in the next SCCS Interface. Would you mind if I were to list you as Apple I coordinator?

If it is okay, drop me a line and enclose a short biography like those on page 20 of the August issue.

Are you going to have any sort of newsletter? Robert Tripp is starting a 6502 N.L., perhaps you can assist.
Larry PressSCCS InterfaceBox 5429Santa Monica, CA 90405

P.S. How about Apple II?

The Apple I in Europe

APPLE COMPUTER COMPANY
770 Welch Rd. Suite 154
Palo Alto, CA 94304
(415) 326-4248

Mr. Peter Vizenetz,

Enclosed is the Apple Computer, Cassette Interface, and additional 4K of memory which you have ordered. I can ship the additional unit the last week of September.

Also included are tapes of the Apple Dis-assembler, and two games, Lunar Lander and Mastermind. These may prove very attractive at the European show. Load the tapes as follows:

BASIC

load E000.EFF run at E000 . Basic now has full strings.

Dis-assembler

load 800.9FF run at 9F0 . Deposit the starting locations in memory locations 44,45 (backwards, ie 44: 00 08 will dis-assemble the next twenty locations starting at location 800. Typing 'R' will dis-assemble the next twenty locations, etc.)

Lunar Lander

load 300.A00 run at 300. This is a good game.

Mastermind

load 300.3FF run at 300 . Try to guess a 5 digit number, digits 0-7 . "+" means right number in right location, "-" means right number in wrong location (you don't know which number).

If you have any questions or comments, please call.

I look forward to selling many Apple systems in Europe.

Respectfully yours,

Steven Jobs